Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 23 November 2020
Accepted: 15 February 2021
First Online: 1 March 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The Institutional Review Board at the University of Alabama at Birmingham approved the study and waived the requirement to obtain informed consent.
: Not applicable.
: KO and SR: Amgen employees and have stock in Amgen. OG: research support and consulting fees from Amgen and Akebia; consulting fees from QED; research support from GSK. TMB: research support from Amgen. PM: research support and consulting fees from Amgen. MW: consulting fees from Kirin and Amgen. RSR: research support from Amgen, Astra Zeneca, Novartis and Regeneron; consulting fees from Amgen, Amyrt, C5, CVS Caremark, Novartis and Regeneron; honoraria from Amgen, Kowa and Regeneron; royalties from Wolters Kluwer (UpToDate); has stock in MediMergent, LLC., EAJ: receives research support from Amgen and NIH; consulting fees from the American College of Cardiology, UpToDate, and McKesson; expert witness for DeBlase Brown Everly, LLP, and editor for American Heart Association. MEF: receives research support from Amgen, Novartis and Novo Nordisk. VB: Executive Steering Committee: ODYSSEY OUTCOMES trial (Sanofi); National Coordinator: STRENGTH (Astra Zeneca), DalGene (Dalcor), and CLEAR (Esperion); Local site investigator: ORION IV; Research support: Amgen; Consultant: Sanofi (2018). LDC: receives research support from Amgen, Inc. DH and LH: no disclosures.