Funding for this research was provided by:
Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (5P30AI050410)
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (AI100067, 5T32AI007419-23)
Received: 5 March 2019
Accepted: 17 June 2019
First Online: 24 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by the UNC-Chapel Hill Institutional Review Board (# 11-1906) and by the National Health Sciences Research Committee (NHSRC; # 882) that is part of the Ministry of Health in Malawi, in Lilongwe, Malawi. Informed parental consent was obtained. Institutional guidelines at UNC and at the UNC Project Malawi in Lilongwe, Malawi, strictly adhere to the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.