Funding for this research was provided by:
National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC1200500)
Received: 17 July 2019
Accepted: 11 November 2019
First Online: 19 November 2019
Ethical approval and consent to participate
: <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> isolates of this study were collected during 2006 to 2011 from malaria patients attending local hospitals and clinics along the China–Myanmar border: Laza, Nawei, Mangdong and Nankajiang in Myanmar, and Tengchong, Yingjiang and Mengla in Yunnan, China. The written informed consent was obtained from each patient or the guardian. It is committed not to provide information about the patient to any person unrelated to the study. This protocol approved by the medical ethics committee of Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.