Funding for this research was provided by:
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through the Malaria Transmission Consortium (45114)
Wellcome Trust Masters Fellowship (089326/z/09/z)
UK-Medical Research Council under the African Research Leaders Award (MR/T008873/1)
Federal Commission for Scholarships for Foreign Students FCS (2017.0006)
Received: 21 August 2020
Accepted: 11 November 2020
First Online: 20 November 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The permission to carry out this study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the National Institute of Medical Research [NIMR/HQ/R.8a/Vol.IX/279 and 324] and from the Institutional Review Board of the Ifakara Health Institute [IHI-IRB-A.50]. The volunteer was provided with informed consent after a verbal explanation about study design in the local language. Before participation and after the experimentation days, participants were screened by a trained clinician for malaria parasite using a rapid diagnostic test (mRDT), and none was found positive. In case they were found positive, they would be treated free of charge following the national guideline of malaria treatment and withdrawn from the study. Information sheets of the informed consent included assurance of confidentiality, voluntary participation, potential risks, and benefit associated with the study. They also had the right to withdraw from the study at any time without justification.
: As part of the consenting procedure and information sheet’s content, they also included a request that results obtained will be disseminated through scientific articles to reach broad audiences, including academics. The permission to publish was thereafter obtained from the National Institute of Medical Research (NIMR), Tanzania that has the legal mandate to approve publications of results from public health research data.
: The authors declare that no competing interests.