Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R01NS055349)
Fogarty International Center (D43 NS078280)
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (FDN-148439)
Canada Excellence Research Chairs, Government of Canada
Received: 4 August 2020
Accepted: 11 December 2020
First Online: 6 January 2021
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Ethical approval was granted by the Institutional Review Boards at Makerere University School of Medicine (Ref: 2008-033, date approved: April 7th 2008), the University of Minnesota (Ref: 0802M27022, date approved: March 31st 2008). The study was approved by the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (Ref: HS 432, date approved: May 16th 2008). Written informed consent was obtained from parents or guardians of study participants and assent from children ≥ 8 years of age.
: Not applicable.
: ALC and KCK are listed as inventors of the following patents (held by University Health Network) involving the use of angiopoietin-1 and -2 as prognostic biomarkers in critical illness: (1) Biomarkers for early determination of a critical or life-threatening response to illness and monitoring response to treatment thereof; (2) Biomarkers for malaria. KCK is also listed as an inventor on the following patents: Angiopoietin-1 and -2 biomarkers for infectious diseases that compromise endothelial integrity. All other authors report no competing interests.