Funding for this research was provided by:
Malaria Eradication Scientific Alliance (1)
Received: 7 August 2019
Accepted: 7 January 2020
First Online: 15 January 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the institutional review boards of University of Zambia (Ref 001-11-11), for the initial collection of data during malaria case investigations, and by ERES converge in Zambia (Ref 2014-July-008) for the expanded data collection.
: Publication of this research was approved by USAID PMI and the Zambia Ministry for Health. The contents of this paper are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of PMI or MESA.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.