Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (OPP1173572)
European Research Council (ERC-2019-CoG864180)
Medical Research Council and Department for International Development (MR/P02016X/1)
Received: 11 January 2021
Accepted: 4 April 2021
First Online: 20 April 2021
: Data within this manuscript was generated using blood samples from clinical trial participants. In Burkina Faso, the participants were enrolled in a clinical trial that was reviewed and approved by the LSHTM ethics committee (Review number: 14724), the CNRFP institutional review board (Deliberation N° 2018/000002/MS/SG/CNRFP/CIB) and the Ethics Committee for Health Research in Burkina Faso (Deliberation N° 2018-01-010). The Gambia protocol was approved by the LSHTM ethics committee (Review number:15993) and The Gambia Government/MRC Joint Ethics Committee (Review number: 1621) . All participants gave informed consent before inclusion in the studies. .
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.