Funding for this research was provided by:
Science and Technology Plan Grant of Guangzhou (202102080035)
The Key Project of Medicine Discipline of Guangzhou (2021–2023-12)
Basic Research Project of Key Laboratory of Guangzhou (202102100001)
Received: 2 August 2023
Accepted: 31 August 2023
First Online: 11 September 2023
: The study did not require ethical approval and declaration from the ethics committee because all data on malaria cases are part of ongoing public health surveillance data for a legitimate infectious disease identified by the national Ministry of Health.
: We declare that we have no competing financial interests.