Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 1 October 2019
Accepted: 13 January 2020
First Online: 29 January 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The necessary IRB approval for NHANES was obtained by the National Center for Health Statistics. All NHANES data are publicly available on the NCHS and USDA websites. Per University of Washington (UW) policies, public data do not involve “human subjects” and their use requires neither IRB review nor an exempt determination. Such data may be used without any involvement of the Human Subjects Division or the UW Institutional Review Board.
: All authors give consent for publication.
: Florent Vieux and Matthieu Maillot are employees of MS- Nutrition. Pamela Barrios is employed by PepsiCo Inc. Adam Drewnowski has received contracts, consulting fees and honoraria from entities both public and private with an interest in beverage consumption, including SSB and bottled water manufacturers and distributors such as PepsiCo, Nestle, and Danone. Colin D. Rehm has no conflicts to report. The views expressed in this work are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of Pepsico Inc.