Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (22330172, 22390400, 22390400, 22592327, 23243070, 23590786, 23790710, 24390469, 24530698, 24653150, 24683018, 25253052, 25870573, 25870881, 26285138, 26882010, 15H04781, 15H01972, 16H05556, 16K19267)
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant, and grants for Comprehensive Research on Aging and Health (H22-Choju-Shitei-008, H24-Junkankitou- Ippan-007, H24-Chikyukibo-Ippan-009, H24-Choju- Wakate-009, H25-Kenki-Wakate-015, H25-Irryo-Shitei-003 [Fukkou], H26-Choju-Ippan-006, H27-Ninchisyou-Ippan-001, H28-Choju-Ippan-002))
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (the Personal Health Record (PHR) Utilization Project, the Research and Development Grants for Longevity Science)
World Health Organization (WHO APW 2017/713981)
Japan Foundation for Aging and Health (Research Support Grant)
National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (Research grant)
Ministry of Education Japan (Strategic Research Foundation Grant-aided Project for Private Universities)
The Health Care Science Institute (Research Grant)
Received: 6 September 2018
Accepted: 9 January 2019
First Online: 21 January 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The JAGES protocols were approved by the ethics committee of Tohoku University and Nihon Fukushi University. We considered that individuals who responded to our survey had consented to participate.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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