Received: 20 February 2020
Accepted: 26 May 2020
First Online: 5 June 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: We exploit the routine dataset, the European Social Survey (ESS). The ESS’s ethics policy can be found here: ExternalRef removed.
: No details or images in this paper relate to individual persons, and so consent for publication is not necessary.
: We declare that we have no competing interests in relation to this research.