Funding for this research was provided by:
agence française de développement (DCI-HUM-2017/386-943)
Received: 21 July 2021
Accepted: 24 January 2022
First Online: 18 February 2022
: No ethical clearance was required by either the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg or the College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee of the University of Malawi since the study relied exclusively on fully anonymized data from existing household surveys and National Health Accounts. We collected no primary data nor interacted with any respondents.
: Not applicable
: The authors declare no conflict of interest.