Funding for this research was provided by:
the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1002801, 2016YFC1000505, 2017YFC1600500)
the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (16ZR1430100)
the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21628701)
Shanghai municipal health commission (201840184)
Health Commission of Zhejiang Province (2018KY812)
Health Commission of Jiaxing City (2016BY58088, 2016A05)
Innovation-oriented Science and Technology Grant from NHC Key Laboratory of Reproduction Regulation (CX2017-06)
Received: 5 January 2019
Accepted: 31 May 2019
First Online: 13 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by the ethical review committee of Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (SIPPR). The study was conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki. All mothers gave their written informed consent for themselves and their children before enrollment and at each follow-up.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.