Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institutes of Health (NIEHS R01ES020926, NIEHS R01ES02092, 3R01ES020926)
School of Medicine, Stanford University (Sean Parker Center for Allergy and Asthma Research)
NIH (NHLBI R01HL081521)
Received: 9 April 2020
Accepted: 1 October 2020
First Online: 16 October 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All participants gave written informed consent for the protocol that was approved by Stanford University’s Institutional Review Board.
: Not applicable.
: Kari Nadeau, MD, PhD: Nadeau reports grants from National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Food Allergy Research & Education (FARE), End Allergies Together (EAT), Allergenis, and Ukko Pharma; Grant awardee at NIAID, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Involved in Clinical trials with Regeneron, Genentech, AImmune Therapeutics, DBV Technologies, AnaptysBio, Adare Pharmaceuticals, and Stallergenes-Greer; Research Sponsorship by Novartis, Sanofi, Astellas, Nestle; Data and Safety Monitoring Board member at Novartis and NHLBI; Cofounded BeforeBrands, Alladapt, ForTra, and Iggenix; Director of FARE and World Health Organization (WAO) Center of Excellence; Personal fees from Regeneron, Astrazeneca, ImmuneWorks, and Cour Pharmaceuticals. All other authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests.