Funding for this research was provided by:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (RD-8358720)
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (ES-000002, R21 ES024012, R01 ES024332-01)
Health Effects Institute (4953)
Received: 28 December 2020
Accepted: 30 April 2021
First Online: 6 May 2021
: This study was approved by the institutional review board at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and was exempt from informed consent requirements as a study of previously collected administrative data.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Joel Schwartz serves as an expert witness for the United States Department of Justice in a case involving a Clean Air Act violation.