Funding for this research was provided by:
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (RD 82670901, RD 83171001, RD 83451301)
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (P01 ES009605, R01 ES015572, R24 ES028529, R01 ES026994)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA035300)
Received: 17 September 2021
Accepted: 21 December 2021
First Online: 10 January 2022
: Written informed consent was obtained from mothers upon enrollment and follow up; children provided verbal assent starting at age 7, written assent starting at age 12, and full written consent at age 18. All activities were approved by the University of California, Berkeley Office for the Protection of Human Subjects.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Asa Bradman is a volunteer member of the Board of Trustees for The Organic Center, a non-profit organization addressing scientific issues about organic food and agriculture, and is a member of the USDA National Organic Standards Board. The authors have no other conflicts of interest relevant to this article to disclose.