Received: 30 September 2022
Accepted: 30 December 2022
First Online: 13 January 2023
: This study is based on the individual mortality data provided to the authors in the anonymized form by the National Institute of Statistics of Spain (INE). The reference information on the municipality of the residence of the deceased was available only in case where the municipality had more than 10 000 of inhabitants, otherwise only the reference data on the province and autonomous community was available. For the purposes of this study these data were aggregated to large spatial units. The data comply with the Data Protection Act and do not require any ethical approval or special permission.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: The informed consent for publication was obtained from all the authors.