Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (20H00040)
EAST JAPAN RAILWAY COMPANY
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (JP21tm0124005, JP21tm0124005)
the Tohoku Medical Megabank Project from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
Received: 6 July 2022
Accepted: 31 August 2022
First Online: 7 September 2022
: Ethics approval is not required for this study as the GPS data we used are commercial data provided in an anonymized form; we did not conduct surveys of human subjects by ourselves. The GPS data were collected only from users who authorized its collection and provision to third parties, and users could opt out from providing their location information at any time.
: Not applicable.
: TN, NN and AH received grants from EAST JAPAN RAILWAY COMPANY during the conduct of the study. SN and TH declare no competing interests.