Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-12-01
Received: 9 September 2019
Accepted: 20 November 2019
First Online: 4 December 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All protocols regarding the use of leeches were carried out in strict accordance with the French legislation and European Treaty, and in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration. The adult leeches Hirudo medicinalis were obtained from Biopharm (Hendy, UK). Rats were provided by Janvier Laboratories and had access to food and water ad libitum. Animal experiments were performed in compliance with the approval of the local ethics committee (agreement APAFIS#2264–2015101320441671 from CEEA75, Lille, France), standards for the care and use of laboratory animals, and the French and European Community guidelines.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.