Funding for this research was provided by:
Received: 18 April 2018
Accepted: 31 May 2018
First Online: 28 June 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: A favorable ethical opinion of this study was given by the University of Strathclyde Research Ethics Committee. Participants were presented with an Informed Consent Form and gave consent to participate online.
: In the past 3 years, the employer of CR, NM, and TD, the Centre for Substance Use Research, has received funding from several e-cigarette manufacturers to conduct research on tobacco harm reduction, specifically, on factors that encourage and discourage smokers from switching to using e-cigarettes. In the past 3 years, MN has received funding from several e-cigarette manufacturers to conduct pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies of their products with smokers and vapers, as well as biomarker studies on smokers who switch to vaping.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.