Funding for this research was provided by:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (5U2GPS003031)
Received: 5 June 2018
Accepted: 19 December 2018
First Online: 5 January 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the Republican AIDS Centers of the Ministries of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Kyrgyz Republic, Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the Kazakhstan School of Public Health, the Committee on Bioethics under the Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic, and the IRB of Columbia University Medical Center.Verbal informed consent was sought from all the study participants. Waiver of written informed consent was requested because the only record linking the subject and the research would be the consent document and the principal risk would be potential harm resulting from breach of confidentiality.
: Not applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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