Funding for this research was provided by:
Bloomberg American Health Initiative
Received: 13 March 2019
Accepted: 1 May 2019
First Online: 21 May 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: All participants were verbally consented. This study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Institutional Review Board.
: SGS is an expert witness for plaintiffs in opioid litigation. The other authors declare that they have no competing interests.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.