Funding for this research was provided by:
Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (1P30AI094189)
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (NA)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NA)
Received: 28 March 2019
Accepted: 30 May 2019
First Online: 24 June 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health (00000287) and the Rhode Island Hospital Institutional Review Boards (1062206).
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Sherman is an expert witness for plaintiffs in opioid litigation. Remaining authors report no conflicts of interest.