Funding for this research was provided by:
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (5T32DA007292, K01DA046234)
Johns Hopkins University (1P30AI094189, P30AI117970, P30AI094189)
Received: 14 January 2021
Accepted: 13 August 2021
First Online: 21 August 2021
: This study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki and all procedures involving research study participants were approved by the Johns Hopkins Institutional Review Board. Verbal informed consent was obtained from all subjects/patients. Verbal consent was witnessed and formally recorded.
: Not applicable.
: Dr. Sherman is an expert witness for plaintiffs in opioid litigation. Remaining authors report no conflicts of interest nor financial disclosures.