Funding for this research was provided by:
foundation for a smokefree world (GG0014)
Received: 6 August 2021
Accepted: 12 October 2021
First Online: 4 December 2021
: Not applicable.
: Not applicable.
: CH received reimbursement from ECLAT for research conducted on tobacco harm reduction (2019–2020) including this article; she has served as a paid member of the advisory panel for the Tobacco Transformation Index (contracted by Sustainability, Sept 2019–April 2020); she served as a paid consultant to TEVA pharmaceuticals on work related to multiple chronic conditions (2017–2020). ES received reimbursement from ECLAT for research conducted on tobacco harm reduction (2019–2020) including this article. LR has no conflict of interest to declare and he received no financial support for participation in this study. SS has no conflict of interest to declare. RP is full-time employee of the University of Catania, Italy. In relation to his work in the area of tobacco control and respiratory diseases, RP has received lecture fees and research funding from Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline, CV Therapeutics, NeuroSearch A/S, Sandoz, MSD, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Duska Therapeutics, and Forest Laboratories. He has also served as a consultant for Pfizer, Global Health Alliance for treatment of tobacco dependence, CV Therapeutics, NeuroSearch A/S, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, Duska Therapeutics, Alfa-Wassermann, Forest Laboratories, ECITA (Electronic Cigarette Industry Trade Association, in the UK), Arbi Group Srl., and Health Diplomats. RP is the Founder of the Center of Excellence for the acceleration of Harm Reduction at the University of Catania (CoEHAR), which has received a grant from Foundation for a Smoke Free World to develop and carry out eight research projects. RP is also currently involved in the following pro bono activities: scientific advisor for LIAF, Lega Italiana Anti Fumo (Italian acronym for Italian Anti-Smoking League) and Chair of the European Technical Committee for standardization on 'Requirements and test methods for emissions of electronic cigarettes' (CEN/TC 437; WG4). SS has no conflict of interest to declare, and has never accepted funding from any tobacco or nicotine commercial or charitable interest, including the FSFW.