Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute of Mental Health (F31MH126796)
National Institute on Drug Abuse (K01DA046234)
Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (128188)
Behavioral Health System Baltimore (AS019-HRO-JHPH)
Center for AIDS Research, Johns Hopkins University (P30AI09418)
Received: 5 August 2022
Accepted: 3 October 2022
First Online: 15 October 2022
: The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Institutional Review Board (Baltimore, MD, USA). All participants provided verbal informed consent prior to study procedures.
: Not applicable.
: SGS is an expert witness for the plaintiffs in ongoing opioid litigation. The remaining authors have no competing interests to disclose.