Funding for this research was provided by:
St. Paul’s Hospital Chair in Substance Use Research
Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research
National Institutes of Health (U01DA038886, U01DA038886)
St. Paul's Foundation
Providence Health Care
National Institutes of Drug Abuse (U01DA0251525)
NG Biomed, Ltd
Government of British Columbia's Ministry of Mental Health and Addictions.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (017542 CIHR 2020)
Received: 1 March 2022
Accepted: 3 November 2022
First Online: 18 November 2022
: All participants provided informed consent for study participation. The cohort studies have been approved by the University of British Columba/Providence Health Care Research Ethics Board.
: Not applicable.
: MJ Milloy’s institution has received an unstructured gift to support his research from NG Biomed, Ltd, an applicant to the Canadian federal government for a license to produce medical cannabis. He is the Canopy Growth Professor of cannabis science at the University of British Columbia, a position created by an unstructured gift to the university from Canopy Growth, a licensed producer of cannabis, and the Government of British Columbia’s Ministry of Mental Health and Addictions. Kanna Hayashi has an unpaid appointment as a member of the Scientific and Research Staff at the Department of Family and Community Practice of the Vancouver Coastal Health (VCH) Authority, which runs supervised injection services that were examined in the present study. Jeff West is a Manager of Harm Reduction and Substance Use Services at VCH. However, neither the health authority nor the aforementioned funders had a role in the study design; collection, analysis and interpretation of data; writing of the paper; or decision to submit for publication. All other authors declare that they have no competing interests.