Funding for this research was provided by:
National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA037820, DA054190, DA037820, DA037820)
Received: 16 January 2023
Accepted: 22 June 2023
First Online: 12 July 2023
: Ethics approval for the study protocol was given by the Committee on Human Research at the University of California, San Francisco.
: Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study and, where quotations have been used, for these to be published in a journal article.
: Dr. Daniel Ciccarone reports the following relevant financial relationships during the past 12 months: 1, he is a scientific advisor to Celero Systems and 2, he has been retained as an expert witness in ongoing prescription opioid litigation by Motley Rice, LLP. The remaining authors have no relevant financial or non-financial interests to disclose.