Funding for this research was provided by:
Clinigen Group PLC
Received: 4 September 2019
Accepted: 4 February 2020
First Online: 10 February 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This meta-analysis study is exempt from ethics approval as the study authors have collected and analysed data from previous clinical trials in which ethics approval and consent have already been obtained by the trial investigators. All data presented in this analysis are anonymised.
: This meta-analysis study involves the collection and analysis of published data from previous clinical trials, in which consent for publication has already been obtained by the trial investigators.
: JS is an employee of Prism Ideas Ltd who received a grant from Clinigen Group PLC to support the development of the HE model. KJC is an independent consultant who received fees from Prism Ideas in relation to the conduct of meta-analyses. SD is an employee of SHE Consulting and was a consultant to Prism Ideas regarding the development of the HE model.