Funding for this research was provided by:
Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, UK Government (EARF/ITT/021)
UK Research and Innovation (ES/P010873/1)
United States Institute of Peace (95314418P1QA00721)
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation
Received: 25 May 2021
Accepted: 2 January 2022
First Online: 11 January 2022
: All data were previously collected for routine humanitarian response and/or health service provision purposes, and were either in the public domain or shared in fully anonymised format. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (ref. 15334), with amendments to cover implementation in different countries. Country-specific approvals came from the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research Institutional Review Board (ref. IRB/18/065) and the Research and the Ethics Review Committee of the Ministry of Health and Human Services, Somali Federal Republic (ref. MOH&HS/DGO/1944/Dec/2018). We applied to the Ethics Review Committee of the South Sudan Ministry of Health (6 Apr 2018), but did not receive a response despite repeated inquiries.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.