Funding for this research was provided by:
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (22330172, 22390400, 23243070, 23590786, 23790710, 24390469, 24530698, 24683018, 25253052, 25870573, 25870881, 26285138, 26882010, 15H01972, 16K16295 and 16J11423)
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development
a Lotte Research Promotion Grant
Health Labour Sciences Research Grants (Numbers H22-Choju-Shitei-008, H24-Junkanki[Seishu]-Ippan-007, H24-Chikyukibo-Ippan-009, H24-Choju-Wakate-009, H25-Kenki-Wakate-015, H25-Choju-Ippan-003, H26-Irryo-Shitei-003[Fukkou], H26-Choju-Ippan-006, H27-Ninchisyou-Ippan-001, H28-Choju-Ippan-002)
Research Funding for Longevity Sciences from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology (24-17 and 24-23)
the Japan Foundation for Aging and Health
World Health Organization Centre for Health Development
Text and Data Mining valid from 2018-10-19
Received: 15 February 2018
Accepted: 9 October 2018
First Online: 19 October 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: As we described in the Methods section, JAGES participants were informed that their participation in the study was voluntary and that completing and returning the questionnaire by mail indicated their consent to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committees in the Research of Human Subjects at Nihon Fukushi University (№ 10–05) and Chiba University Faculty of Medicine (№ 1777).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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