Funding for this research was provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (5R)1HL111378 02, R01HL083454)
Australian Research Council (FT140100085)
Health and Medical Research Fund (10111501)
Santander University Scholarship Program 2018 (N/A)
Fundo Regional para a Ciência e Tecnologia (SFRH/ BSAB/142983/2018 & UID/DTP/00617/2019)
National Heart Foundation of Australia (ID101928 (Future Leader Fellowship), ID100046 (Future Leader Fellowship))
Israel Science Foundations (916/12)
Health Research Council of New Zealand (12/329)
Research Foundation Flanders (FWO12/ASP/102)
Sir Charles Hercus Research Fellowship - Health Research Council of New Zealand (17/013)
Generalitat Valenciana (GV-2013-087)
Madras Diabetes Research Foundation (N/A)
Czech Science Foundation (GA14-2689S and GA17-24378S)
Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Informação Quântica (306836/2011-4)
Received: 11 July 2019
Accepted: 20 November 2019
First Online: 3 December 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Each country obtained ethical approval from their local institutional review boards. Written informed parental consent and student assent for participation was obtained from participants.
: Not applicable.
: JFS received grants and personal fees from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation outside the submitted work and grants and nonfinancial support from Nike, Inc., outside the submitted work, during the project; receives a stipend from Gopher Sports and royalties from San Diego State University Research Foundation, both related to SPARK physical activity programs, outside the submitted work. The remaining co-authors have no competing interests to declare.