Funding for this research was provided by:
The Academy of Medical Sciences / Wellcome Trust (HOP001/1025)
Received: 3 September 2019
Accepted: 10 December 2019
First Online: 30 December 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Approval was obtained from the PISA Governing Board, composed of representatives of OECD Members and PISA Associates. In each participating country or economy, school staff, students and parents were informed of the nature of assessment and its use and consent provided.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.