Funding for this research was provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01HL116892, R35HL139853)
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (T32DK083250)
United Kingdom Clinical Research Collaboration (MR/K023187/1, ES/G007462/1, RES-590-28-0002, 087636/Z/08/Z)
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_12015/7, MR/T010576/1)
Received: 13 July 2020
Accepted: 14 September 2020
First Online: 9 October 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The University of Minnesota’s Institutional Review Board Human Subjects Committee approved all protocols (1207S17861). Parental consent and participant assent obtained at wave 1 and participant consent obtained at each of the subsequent waves.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.