Funding for this research was provided by:
Medical Research Council (MC_UU_00006/4, MC_UU_12015/3, and MC_UU_12015/1, MC_UU_12015/1)
National Institute for Health Research (IS_BRC-1215-20014)
Received: 18 January 2021
Accepted: 9 June 2021
First Online: 27 July 2021
: Ethical approval for the UK Biobank studies was given by the NHS National Research Ethics Service (ref. 11/NW/0382) and all participants provided written and informed consent.
: This manuscript does not report any individual-level data.
: All authors declare no support from any additional organisations for the submitted work; no financial relationships with any organisations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous three years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work.