Funding for this research was provided by:
Wellcome Trust (205212/Z/16/Z)
Received: 8 June 2021
Accepted: 10 December 2021
First Online: 31 January 2022
: Study 3 was reviewed by, and received ethics approval through, the University of Oxford Central University Research Ethics Committee [R70304/RE001]. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. Studies 1 and 2 involved natural experiments, evaluating changes that would have occurred anyway, so consent was not required.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.