Funding for this research was provided by:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (HL083454)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD096097)
Received: 31 March 2022
Accepted: 14 July 2022
First Online: 26 August 2022
: All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved by the sponsoring institution’s human subjects’ protection committee (San Diego State University and University of California, San Diego Human Research Protections Program; IRB protocol #1294). All parents or legal caregivers of the adolescent participants provided informed consent to participate and all adolescent participants provided informed assent to participate.
: Not applicable.
: LDF owns Urban Design 4 Health, Inc. and performed the work on this project as a contractor. JFS receives royalties and honoraria from Gopher Sport Inc. and the San Diego State University Research Foundation related to SPARK physical activity programs. All other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.