Received: 28 May 2020
Accepted: 28 September 2020
First Online: 19 October 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: Each patient who took part in the study gave written informed consent. The study was approved by the Independent Ethic Committee at the Policlinico Tor Vergata of Rome (Rome, Italy).
: Not applicable.
: GM has filed a patent related to the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases with Smad7 antisense oligonucleotides. The remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.