Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-04-11
Received: 20 December 2018
Accepted: 1 April 2019
First Online: 11 April 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study had ethical approval by the Sheffield Hallam University’s Academy of Sport & Physical Activity Ethics Committee.
: Not applicable.
: The caffeine and placebo gum were provided by Superfast Energy Gum™; Rotherham, UK. All of the authors declare no conflicts of interest. The results of this study do not constitute endorsement of this product by the authors or the JISSN. The authors declare that the results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation.
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