Funding for this research was provided by:
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (H29-Nanchitou (Nan)-Ippan-043, H26-Nanchitou (Nan)-Ippan-043)
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (17K16125, 15K09341, 18K07529, 17K16124, 16H02657)
Japanese Multiple Sclerosis Society (N/A)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-09-13
Received: 28 March 2019
Accepted: 29 August 2019
First Online: 13 September 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study received ethical approval from the Ethics Committee of Kyushu University (approval number: 575-04), and written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
: Not applicable.
: GM, KM, and YY declare that they have no competing interests. MW received grant support from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI and GlaxoSmithKline KK. KS received research grants from JSPS KAKENHI and the Japanese Multiple Sclerosis Society. NI received grant support from JSPS KAKENHI, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Osoegawa Neurology Clinic, Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd., and Japan Blood Products Organization. YN received grant support from JSPS KAKENHI, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Bayer Yakuhin, Ltd., and Japan Blood Products Organization. TM received grant support from JSPS KAKENHI, and received speaker honoraria payments from Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, and Biogen Japan. JK received grant support from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Japan, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, JSPS KAKENHI and the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, AMED, Japan, and received consultant fees, speaking fees, and/or honoraria from Novartis Pharma, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Boehringer Ingelheim, Teijin Pharma, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Astellas Pharma, Pfizer Japan, and Eisai. The other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.