Funding for this research was provided by:
National Multiple Sclerosis Society (FG 20102-A-1, FG 2067-A-1)
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; Le 3079/1-1)
Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla (2013/B/4)
Conrad N. Hilton Foundation
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (R01NS105741)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-11-04
Received: 11 April 2019
Accepted: 10 September 2019
First Online: 4 November 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the University of California, San Francisco, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) and the German regional authorities (State Agency for Nature, Environment and Consumer Protection; AZ 84-02.4.2014.A059) and performed in adherence to the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Unrelated to the work presented, the authors declare the following financial disclosures: Michael Dietrich received speaker honoraria from Novartis. Hans-Peter Hartung has received fees for serving on steering committees from Biogen Idec, GeNeuro, Sanofi Genzyme, Merck, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Octapharma, Opexa Therapeutics, Teva Pharmaceuticals, MedImmune, Bayer HealthCare, Forward Pharma, and Roche; fees for serving on advisory boards from Biogen Idec, Sanofi Genzyme, Merck, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Octapharma, Opexa Therapeutics, Teva Pharmaceuticals, and Roche; and lecture fees from Biogen Idec, Sanofi Genzyme, Merck, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Octapharma, Opexa Therapeutics, Teva Pharmaceuticals, MedImmune, and Roche. Klaus Lehmann-Horn received speaker honoraria and travel support from Novartis, Hoffmann-La Roche, and Merck Serono. He receives research support from Novartis. Philipp Albrecht received compensation for serving on Scientific Advisory Boards for Ipsen, Novartis, Biogen; he received speaker honoraria and travel support from Novartis, Teva, Biogen, Merz Pharmaceuticals, Ipsen, Allergan, Bayer Healthcare, Esai, UCB, and Glaxo Smith Kline; he received research support from Novartis, Biogen, Teva, Merz Pharmaceuticals, Ipsen, and Roche. Ari J. Green served on the scientific advisory board of MedImmune, Novartis, OCTIMS, Inception 5 Biosciences, and Bionure; is an associate editor of JAMA Neurology; was an editorial board member of Neurology; holds a patent for remyelination molecules and pathways; consulted for Inception 5 Sciences; received research support from Novartis Pharma OCTIMs, Inception Sciences SRA, NINDS, NIA, National MS Society, Sherak Foundation, and Hilton Foundation; holds stock or stock options in Inception 5; and served as an expert witness at Mylan v Teva Pharma. The other authors report no disclosures.