Funding for this research was provided by:
Fulbright Association (Spain-US Fulbright grant)
Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada (EG3858)
National Institutes of Health (UH3TR000890)
U.S. Department of State (W81XWH1810648)
Received: 3 March 2023
Accepted: 22 May 2023
First Online: 1 June 2023
: A signed informed consent was received from all the patients. This study has been approved by our hospital’s Ethics Committee and follows the STARD guidelines. Secondary use approval was obtained from the institutional review board of the Brigham and Women’s Hospital for the CLIMB cohort study.
: Signed informed consent was received from all the patients including consent for publication.
: A. Gonzalez-Martinez has received education funding from Lilly, Novartis, Roche, TEVA, Abbvie-Allergan, & Daichi. G. Bose has received speaker fees from TEVA, Novartis, and EMD Serono, served on a scientific advisory board from Novartis and EMD Serono, and received research funding from an endMS post-doctoral fellowship award from the Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada and a TOHAMO innovation fund grant from IFPOC. B. Healy served on the scientific advisory board for Biogen, Worldwide Medical Biostatistics, Multiple Sclerosis, served on the editorial board for Statistical Methods in Medical Research, received research support from Merck Serono, Gen- zyme, Novartis, Google Life Sciences, NIH, National Multiple Sclerosis Society. H. Weiner has consulted for Genentech, Inc; Tiziana Life Sciences; IM Therapeutics; MedDay Pharmaceuticals; vTv Therapeutics; I-MAB Biopharma and received research support National Institutes of Health; National Multiple Sclerosis Society; Sanofi Genzyme; and Genentech, Inc. T. Chitnis served on clinical trial advisory boards for Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Genzyme-Sanofi, consulted for Biogen Idec, Novartis, Genzyme-Sanofi, Genentech Roche, received research support from EMD Serono, Novartis, Biogen, Verily, National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Peabody Foundation, the Consortium for MS Centers, Guthy-Jackson Charitable Foundation. H. Lokhande, S. Saxena, and M. Polgar-Turcsanyi have no disclosures.