Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (16KT0130, 17H04701, 17H05808 and 18H04895, Program for Advancing Strategic International Networks to Accelerate the Circulation of Talented Researchers)
Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (JP18fk0108050)
Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (H28-AIDS-General-001)
Inamori Foundation (NA)
Telecommunications Advancement Foundation (NA)
Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (JPMJCR1413)
Text and Data Mining valid from 2019-03-20
Received: 10 December 2018
Accepted: 5 March 2019
First Online: 20 March 2019
: The authors are experts with an interest in infectious disease epidemiology and also theoretical epidemiology, and the corresponding author is the chairperson and team leader of the Department of Hygiene, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine.
: The purpose of the study was explained to participants and they were ensured that the extent of use of the survey information was limited to the present study. Informed consent was obtained via the internet webpage, and participants had the right to withdraw at any time during the study period. The Medical Ethics Committees at the Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo approved this study (approval ID: 10478). As for the seroepidemiological data, we used publicly available data in the present study [CitationRef removed]. The datasets had already been fully anonymized and did not include any identifiable information. Thus, ethical approval was not required for the analysis of seroepidemiological data.
: Not applicable – all details relating to participants were de-identified prior to inclusion in this study.
: The authors declare that co-author H. Nishiura is the Editor-in-Chief of Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all policies of Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling on sharing data and materials.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.