Funding for this research was provided by:
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (248902460001)
Received: 14 August 2017
Accepted: 18 June 2018
First Online: 28 June 2018
: YS is a Japanese midwifery researcher who obtained her PhD from the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. She has been conducting research on maternal child health and midwifery in Tanzania since 2008. She speaks fluent English and Swahili which were necessary for conducting this study. FM and SL are Tanzanian midwifery researchers who provided cultural understanding of the data. KK is a nurse and statistician who provided analytical expertise into the study. SH is a Japanese midwifery professor who has conducted, supervised, and published numerous midwifery research studies across the world, and who currently spearheads many on-going studies in this field.
: Verbal consent was obtained as the information gathered was unidentifiable and the study risk was minimal. Ethical clearance and permissions were obtained from the 1) Research Ethics Committee of St. Luke's International University (14–040); 2) Director of the Korogwe District Council, 3) National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania (NIMR/HQ/R.8/Vol.IX/1604), and 4) Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (No. 2013–273-NA-2013-101).
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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