Funding for this research was provided by:
UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (WHO Registration 2017/730199-0)
Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research LIVES – Overcoming vulnerability: Life course perspectives (51NF40-160590)
UK Aid from the UK Government (203177 -101)
Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs (#4000000282)
Received: 14 April 2021
Accepted: 21 October 2022
First Online: 27 December 2022
: This study involves human participants. Consent forms and procedures for participants are described in the section "<i>Ethical considerations.</i>" Ethical approval was obtained from the Research Ethics Review Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO ERC) (protocol ID: ERC.0003259). Ethical approval in Kenya was obtained from the Ethics and Scientific Review Committee (ESRC) of the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF), protocol number P765-2020. In Burkina Faso, ethical approval was obtained from the Comité d’Ethique pour la Recherche en santé (CERS), deliberation number 2020-02-030.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.