Funding for this research was provided by:
Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (INV-001363)
Received: 16 July 2022
Accepted: 8 December 2022
First Online: 6 January 2023
: All participants provided written consent prior to participation. Ethical approval for the study in rural and urban Kenya was provided by University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) ethical review units, the study in Ghana received ethical approval from UCSF and Navrongo Health Research Center (NHRC) review units and in India ethical approval was provided by UCSF and Community Empowerment Lab (CEL) review units. This manuscript represents a secondary analysis; no additional approvals were needed.
: Not applicable.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.