Funding for this research was provided by:
Branco Weiss Fellowship – Society in Science
Pembroke College, University of Cambridge (NA)
Oak Foundation (NA)
US-UK Fulbright Commission (NA)
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (NA)
Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin (NA)
Cambridge-Africa Alborada Award (NA)
Received: 26 November 2018
Accepted: 28 March 2019
First Online: 13 May 2019
: All photographs were collected as part of field surveys by the South African non-profit Elephants Alive in line with their agreements with the management of the Associated Private Nature Reserves. During collaring operations elephants were captured and handled in accordance with ethical standards and all collaring operations took place in accordance with the standard operating procedures of SANParks (Additional file InternalRef removed). The research forms part of a registered and approved SANParks project, in association with the Kruger National Park and Scientific Services and the Associated Private Nature Reserves (Project ID: judith1547.22).
: Not applicable
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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