Funding for this research was provided by:
Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (W81XwH-17-1-0704)
American Heart Association (16PRE31160018)
National Science Foundation (DGE-1324585)
Received: 14 June 2018
Accepted: 25 September 2018
First Online: 8 November 2018
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study was approved by the Northwestern University Institutional Review Board. All participants provided written informed consent prior to participation in the experiments.
: Not applicable
: MS and ER hold pending patents on the technology (prosthesis) used in this study.
: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.