Funding for this research was provided by:
Columbia University President's Global Innovation Fund
Received: 8 February 2020
Accepted: 5 May 2020
First Online: 29 July 2020
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: The study was approved by Columbia Medical Center Institutional Review Board, USA; The Institutional Review Board of Tsinghua University, Research Centre for Public Health, China; National Commission for Science and Technology, Malawi; and National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania.
: Each interview participant provided a written consent form.
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.