Funding for this research was provided by:
the Opening Project of Shanghai Key Laboratory of Crime Scene Evidence (2018XCWZK22)
Shanghai Sailing Program (17YF1414200)
Postdoctoral Research Foundation of China (2016M601507)
China postdoctoral science foundation (2018T110348)
National Natural Science Foundation of China (81701861)
Received: 29 August 2018
Accepted: 15 January 2019
First Online: 31 January 2019
Ethics approval and consent to participate
: This study focused on fatal medical malpractice cases. We only extracted patients’ medical records and autopsy report without using human tissues. Thus this study did not need patients’ participation. The protocol for extraction of patients’ medical records and autopsy report was approved by the Ethics Committee Board at the School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University (No. 2017-C001).
: This study only extracted patients’ medical records and autopsy report without using human tissues. Patients’ personal information were strictly protected and they were coded as case identity. The study was exempted from patients’ consent as per approval by the Ethical Committee of School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University (No. 2017-C001).
: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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